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shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics for each study area during the study time period, including the proportion of the population who were Indigenous, as well as the proportion who were Australian-born, employed full-time, and other selected characteristics.
As of 2011, the population in the CSG area was approximately 44 217 (average median age 39.0 years), 7747 in the RLI area (average median age 39.9 years), and 35 142 in the CHI area (average median age 30.2 years) [ Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics used as model covariates for the coal seam gas, rural low-impact, and coal high-impact study areas for the start, mid-point, and end of the study time period (1995–2011) Hospitalization data (defined as admitted to hospital for a period of 24 h or longer) were obtained from Queensland Health through the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection (QHAPDC).
The time period 1995–2011 was selected in order to include a period of time where all areas had minimal to no CSG activity, in particular, in the CSG area.
The areas evolved over this time period, with the CSG study area increasing CSG development activities (Fig.
Such studies have provided some evidence for adverse health outcomes potentially associated with UNGD, but have suggested the need for further research.
A recent literature review concluded that the majority of studies published on UNGD and environmental health concentrated on shale gas, focused only on a few key areas of environmental health, such air and water, and generally lacked methodological rigor .Gas production from these basins represents over 88 % of the total gas produced in the state. These areas were identified as a CSG area, a coal high-impact (CHI) area (where coal mining, but no CSG development was present), and a rural low-impact (RLI) area (where no coal mining or CSG development was present).All were non-metropolitan regions of Queensland (i.e., regional/rural).The expansion of the coal seam gas (CSG) industry in Australia has raised concerns about potential human health impacts in part because of a current lack of human health impact assessment information, as well as accessible baseline studies in Australia .Furthermore, information on exposures to CSG-associated environmental hazards is minimal.
Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Queensland Behavioural & Social Sciences Ethical Review Committee (approval number 2012000582).