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Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a process whereby organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.
Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process.
the origin of chromosomal sex determination may have been fairly early in eukaryotes (see Evolution of anisogamy).
The ZW sex-determination system is shared by birds, some fish and some crustaceans.
However, no third gamete is known in multicellular animals.
As sexual reproduction developed by way of a long process of evolution, intermediates exist.
Bacteria, for instance, reproduce asexually, but undergo a process by which a part of the genetic material of an individual (donor) is transferred to an other (recipient).
This double-chromosome stage is called "diploid", while the single-chromosome stage is "haploid".
Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells (gametes) that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via meiosis.
The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm, in animals; pollen in plants) while females produce female gametes (ova, or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic.